You can do a very simple check if you'd like(but I'll give you the answer anyway). Yes, there's a difference. A confined space, like a car, heats up and holds the heat more than large, open space. You can check this by checking the temp in your house and your car parked in the shade. I have a stand alone bathroom(just a toilet in a room) that's maybe 6x12. Close that door, in my air conditioned house, and it becomes a sauna in half an hour.
BTW, sorry about your father but the cops probably did what was required of them. Oddly enough, sometimes they get attitude when enforcing the law. Maybe because they're power-hungry ******** or maybe because they deal with the dregs of the earth on an hourly basis. Maybe a combination in some cases.